The Chemistry of LiPO

Lithium batteries are very different in the way they function to conventional batteries.  In lithium batteries there is no decomposition or change in material structure to create power. The electron flow is created by physical movement of lithium-IONs from the positive electrode to the negative.


Of course this physical movement of metalic ions is relatively easy to flow but resistance in the path of ion flow is present.


Each cycle will see a flow of lithium-IONs from one electrode to the other and back again upon charging.  Of course not 100% recovery is always available thus capacity decay occurs upon every cycle.


Heat of course is always generated with moving parts. Here lithium-IONs need to pass through the electrode layers, and electrolyte.  Any impurity, lack of ION density will cause localized heating (due to resistance) and damage of the cell internal structure.

What is LiPO and how does it work?

How are they made?

What is Blend 420?

What is Blend 427/435?

Any future Blends??

What is nanotechnology?

What we see is that RC lipo cells/packs although similar to consumer electronics cells in chemistry,  have a very different manufacturing process and QC process also.  Thus reliability, quality and performance can vary significantly.


The flow chart on the right shows the generic step by step flow chart of a lithium ION battery cell.



Phase1 is the electrode production and for RC hobby the important factors are:

1. consistently thin electrodes

2. purity of cathode material

3. conductivity of electrode substrate


Phase2 is the physical construction.  RC Hobby batteries are made by hand thus important factors include:

1. separator strength

2. volume of electrolyte

3. no dust or particles within the structure

4. no moisture ingress


Phase 3 is the quality control section.

This is typically done via formation (cycling) of ther cell to determine capacity and IR.  After formation the cells should be aged for a few days and cycled again.  Results can either be passed or failed depending on the tolerance of acceptance at the factory.


The more formation processes you have and the longer the ageing time the more reliable cells that are produced.  But of course costs will be higher as this all takes time and manpower.


Consumer electronics lithium batteries (especially Korean and Japanese) have a 3 step formation process.  RC hobby batteries can be down to a 1 or 2 step QA process thus the higher battery mortality rates.  


As RC market is very competitive,  factories want to make cheaper cells and the only way is compromising material purity or formation cycles (QC checking ).  At REVOBlends we employ a 3 stage manufacturing process and thus tighter quality control.

Blend420 is conventional Lithium Batteries with safe charging levels at 4.20V per cell.  This is what most RC Hobbyists are using these days

Blend427  (Or Higher) is a new derivative of conventional Blend420 LiPO but with an added ceramic coating on the positive active coating preventing gaseous buildup during higher voltage charging.

The higher voltage capability will give the user more capacity for the same weights. The nominal voltage stay the same

Sure will be.  At REVO Blend435 has just been released and Blend455 is some time off yet.   We won't release any new Blends until all safety and performance standards are satisfied.

In terms of lithium polymer batteries, the use of nanotechnology usually implies that the particles of active materials in the electrodes have a diameter in the nano-scale that is up to approximately 100 nanometers (1 nm = 0.000001 mm). Therefore a “nanotech” cell has the same basic macro structure, just the electrodes coated on the aluminium and copper current collectors contain considerably smaller (nano) particles. Accordingly, the amount and type of the two basic additives (conductive carbon and polymer binder) has to be adapted. Nano-materials may enhance rate capability, but safety, lifetime and cycle efficiency remain serious challenges due to the high reactive surface of the electrodes.


lithium MFG process LiWorkingDiagram Revo 0 Revo 0 Revo 0 Revo 0 Revo 0 Revo 0 Revo 0

The manufacturing process